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Later in this essay, I will return to that theme.� One lesson that I learned during my adventures is that with global events, far more happens than meets the public eye.� Accepting events at face value is rarely appropriate.� That stated, documented history and archeological and other physical evidence can provide important insights, and this essay will continue along a scientist's/historian�s path for now. Hoffman�s team tested the carbon-13/12 ratios of the cap carbonates and found them to be lifeless.� That was key evidence presented in their 1998 paper that supported Kirschvink�s Snowball Earth hypothesis. [130] � As Kirschvink did, Hoffman and his colleagues argued that BIFs were evidence of Snowball Earth conditions, and they concluded their paper as Kirschvink did, by stating that the alternating icehouse and greenhouse periods would have produced extreme environmental stress on the ecosystems and may well have led to the explosion of complex life in their aftermath.� A few months after publication of the Hoffman team�s paper came another seminal paper, by Donald Canfield. [131] � Those papers resulted in a flurry of scientific investigations and controversy.� Hoffman engaged in feuds as Snowball Earth�s front man.� The Snowball Earth hypothesis has won out, so far.� There is a � Slushball Earth � hypothesis that states that the Cryogenian Ice Age was not as severe as Hoffman and his colleagues suggest, and there are other disputes over the Snowball Earth hypothesis, but the idea of a global glaciation is probably here to stay, with a great deal of ongoing investigation .� The record during the Cryog enian Ice Age shows immense swings in organic carbon burial, coinciding with the formation of late-Proterozoic BIFs. [132] �The Proterozoic Eon is the last one before complex life appeared on Earth.� Canfield�s original hypothesis, which seems largely valid today, is that the deep oceans were not oxygenated until the Ediacaran Period, which followed the Cryogenian; the process did not begin until about 580 mya and first completed about 560 mya. [133] � Th e wildest carbon-13/12 ratio swing in Earth�s entire geological record begins about 575 mya and ends about 550 mya, and is called the Shuram excursion. [134] � Explaining the Shuram excursion is one of the most controversial areas of geology today, with numerous proposed hypotheses.� When the controversies are finally resolved, if they are resolved, the Shuram and Lomagundi excursions, even though they go in opposite directions, I suspect will likely be both related to the dynamics of ice ages and the rise of oxygen levels.� Ediacaran fauna, the first large, complex organisms to ever appear on Earth, also first appeared about 575 mya, when the Shuram excursion began. [135] � I strongly doubt that Earth�s first appearance of large complex life at the exact geological timescale moment of the wildest carbon-isotope swing in Earth�s history will prove to be a coincidence.� The numerous competing hypotheses regarding the Shuram excursion include: The oxidation of a vast pool of organic carbon in the oceans, aided by the carbon-removal effect of animal feces and dead animals dropping to the ocean floor; [136] The excursion does not mark a genuine event relating to life processes, but is an artifact of geological processes (called diagenesis ); this has a high hurdle to overcome, as the excursion has been measured globally and diagenesis is usually a local phenomenon, and no global mechanism has yet been proposed for it; [137] It was related to a global glaciation, like previous Snowball Earth glaciations; [140] The excursion was real, but there were others, and none of them significantly impacted Precambrian evolution. [141] Deep-ocean currents, taking atmospheric gases deep into the oceans as they do today, do not seem to have existed during supercontinental times, and atmospheric oxygen was likely only a few percent at most when the Cryogenian Period began.� Canfield�s ocean-oxygenation evidence partly came from testing sulfur isotopes.� As with carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, life prefers the lighter isotope of sulfur, and sulfur-32 and sulfur-34 are two stable isotopes that can be easily tested in sediments.� Canfield proposed that in pre-Cryogenian oceanic depths, sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are among Earth�s earliest life forms and produce hydrogen sulfide as its waste product, abounded.� Hydrogen sulfide gives rotten eggs their distinctive aroma and is highly toxic to plants and animals, as it disables the enzymes used in mitochondrial respiration. �Hydrogen sulfide would react with dissolved iron to form iron pyrite and settle out in the ocean floor, just as the iron oxide did that formed the BIFs.� The sulfate-reducing bacteria will enrich the sulfur-32/34 ratio by 3% and did so before the Cryogenian, but the Ediacaran iron pyrite sediments showed a 5% enrichment.� A persuasive explanation is recycling sulfur in the oceanic ecosystem, which can only happen in the presence of oxygen. [142] Part of the hypothesis for skyrocketing oxygen levels during the late Proterozoic was that high carbon dioxide levels, combined with a continent that had been ground down by glaciers, and the resumption of the hydrological cycle, which would have vanished during the Snowball Earth events, would have created conditions of dramatically increased erosion, which would have buried carbon (the cap carbonates are part of that evidence) and thus helped oxygenate the atmosphere.� Evidence for that increased erosion also came in the form of strontium isotope analysis.� Two of strontium�s stable isotopes are strontium-86 and 87 .� Earth�s mantle is enriched in strontium-86 while the crust is enriched in strontium-87, so basalts exposed to the ocean in the oceanic volcanic ridges are enriched in strontium-86 while continental rocks are enriched in strontium-87. �If erosion is higher than normal, then ocean sediments will be enriched in strontium-87, which analysis of Ediacaran sediments confirmed.� That evidence, combined with carbon isotope ratios, provides a strong indication of high erosion and high carbon burial, which would have increased atmospheric oxygen levels. [143] � There is other evidence of increasing atmospheric oxygen content during the late Proterozoic, such as an increase in rare earth elements in Ediacaran sediments.� Although there is still plenty of controversy, today's consensus is that the Cryogenian is when atmospheric oxygen levels began rising to modern levels, where they have largely stayed, although as this essay will later discuss, oxygen levels have varied widely since the late Proterozoic (from perhaps only a few percent to 35%).� An increase in atmospheric oxygen usually meant a decline in carbon dioxide, which would have cooled the planet.� Recent data and models suggest that during the Cryogenian Period, global surface temperatures declined from around 40o C to around 20o C, and it has been below 30o C ever since, generally fluctuating between� 25o C and 10o C.� Today�s global surface temperature of around 15o C is several degrees warmer than during the glacial periods of the current ice age but is still among the lowest that Earth has ever experienced, and is generally attributed to atmospheric carbon dioxide�s consistent decline during the past 100-150 million years .� Paleontologists were lonely fossil hunters for more than a century, but in my lifetime they found allies in geologists, and with the rise of DNA sequencing and genomics, molecular biologists have provided invaluable assistance.� In 1 996, a paper was published that created a huge splash in paleontological circles. [144] � Molecular biologists used the concept of the �molecular clock� of genetic divergence among various species.� Their work concluded that the stage was set for animal emergence hundreds of millions of years before they appeared in the fossil record, particularly during the Cambrian Explosion.� That paper initiated its own explosion of genetic research, and the current range of estimates has the genetic origins of animals somewhere between 1.2 bya and 700 mya, but this field is in its infancy and more results are surely coming. [145] � From an early optimism that molecular clocks could finely calibrate the timing of events, scientists have come to admit that �molecular clocks� do not reliably keep time.� Today, molecular evidence is used more to tell what happened than when.� The geological and archeological record is considered more accurate for dating, and that evidence is used for calibrating molecular evidence.� Even though �molecular clocks� keep far from perfect time, they are being used to do some timekeeping, when they can be bounded by other timing evidence, with a kind of interpolation of the data points.

Pages: 191

Publisher: BookBaby; 1 edition (January 14, 2016)


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He is such a child, and I suppose that I am another. Shame to confess it, the other morning I got a friend to look after the caf for a couple of hours, wrapped up my head, and walked out there to the other end of the town.. . Bronze Age Bureaucracy: Writing and the Practice of Government in Assyria Bronze Age Bureaucracy: Writing and the. The far-reaching possibilities of this force were most accurately developed to perfection by the ancients and put to the highest possible use. For, thought is the primal force at the origin and back of all creation; the genesis of the entire phenomenal creation is given as a single thought that arose in the Cosmic Mind ref.: The Near East: "Ancient download for free The Near East: "Ancient Dalmatia, Greece. From the photo alone we can tell that this individual is trained in ballet, a particular form of dance popular in certain parts of the world read The Revolution Is!: The People's Pottage - Revisited online. Yet the continuities and common themes loom every bit as important as the often perceived "Tower of Babel." TO: Those remarkable humans across Eastern Europe who have struggled, preserved, grown in stature in the midst of decades of unspeakable abuse online. That decision was not (and is not) approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and is not accepted by the U. However, Myanmar is widely accepted by numerous countries, and by the United Nations. European Russia: The Russian landmass west of the Ural Mountains is commonly referred to as European Russia in most educational atlases, and by the vast majority of geography experts The Great Divide: Nature and Human Nature in the Old World and the New The Great Divide: Nature and Human. It is considered a national heritage site. On a number of tombstones black swastikas were scrawled, and there was also graffiti saying "The War is not over." I looked at the girl also without any particular intention. But she arrested my movement towards the dining-room door by a low, hurried, if perfectly unemotional appeal: That of course was not my name Western Civilization Since download here Western Civilization Since 1600. Internally, pre-state societies could be quite violent, even the �peaceful� ones, usually with men going at it.� In matrilocal societies, the fighting was more like wrestling matches than deadly encounters.� When women fought each other, it was often in �cat-fighting� style with which they tried to disfigure each other�s faces as a way to make them less attractive to men. [590] The Solutrean cult ure (x. 22 kya to 17 kya) succeeded the Gravettian culture, to in its turn be succeeded by Magdalenian culture (c. 17 kya to 12 kya), an d Mode V tools (also called microliths ) appeared.� Those cultures were in France and Spain, the Neanderthals� former range, in the refugia from the ice sheets that blanketed northern Europe, and the Magdalenian culture spread northward as the current interglacial interval began. � Europe was a cru cible for violence probably ever since the human conquest of Neanderthals, and evidence for warfare and mass violence increases as the timeline progressed from then.� But going back to those chimp gangs, violence is not instinctual as much as calculated, and is a response to economic scarcity above all else.� However, those early religious rituals were not only a method to form group cohesion; they were also a way to condition men to throw their lives away while trying to take the lives of others.� The rituals and rites of passage for men were often extremely painful ordeals that conditioned them for the short life of a warrior, and forming highly contrasting in-group/out-group beliefs that facilitated killing other people.� The portion of the human brain where emotions appear to be seated, in the limbic system, is no larger than in our great ape cousins.� It is well-known that fear shuts down the neocortex, as animals prepare for fight-or-flight responses, and it is no different with humans.� However, the response is much more dramatic with humans, with their huge neocortexes and frontal lobes.� So the human response to fear is losing much of what makes humans seemingly sentient.� Those religious rituals seem designed to bypass the neocortex and form a bridge to the limbic system where emotions rule. �Religion seems to have arisen as a response to warfare, but that will be explored in the next chapter, which covers the civilizing of humanity, which is the Third Epochal Event read The Revolution Is!: The People's Pottage - Revisited pdf.

All of the things that we see today have been in some way shape or form improved upon to stand the test of time , source: Augustus: The Life And Times download here Augustus: The Life And Times Of Rome's. In 2600, the Indus Valley was verdant, forested, and teeming with wildlife download. Curious story to happen to a goatherd living all her days out under God's eye, as my uncle the Cura might have said A History of the Modern World A History of the Modern World. It chronicles the creation of man, the actions of the gods, the origin and history of the Quiché people, and the chronology of their kings down to 1550. These Mayan texts were not regarded as sacred or authoritative in themselves (they are not revelations from the divine like the Bible or Quran), but rather as important records of religious rituals and knowledge Western civilization: To 1500 read pdf Western civilization: To 1500 [and]. Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum ized Arab is depicted. The compositions, often lacking in any strong aesthetic intent, are documentary caricatures in which the artist has recorded the telling and recognizable gesture or a known and common setting or activity The Works of Sir Thomas download pdf The Works of Sir Thomas Browne, Volume.

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In Egypt, all things, including the people and property, were owned by the pharaoh. Sumerians invented the wheel and the first plow in 3700 BC. Sumerians developed a math system based on the numeral 60, which is the basis of time in the modern world. Sumerian society was "Matriarchal" and women had a highly respected place in society. Banking originated in Mesopotamia (Babylonia) out of the activities of temples and palaces, which provided safe places for the storage of valuables John the Physician's download pdf John the Physician's Therapeutics. The Greeks had made a wild spread of discoveries on several fields epub. The Greeks applauded the perfected human form, representing it in a thousand different ways, in particular, in idealised images of their gods. In contrast, the Jews, lacking artistic skill, horrified the Greeks by mutilating their sexual organs as a commitment to an invisible god. Greek sexual licence extended even to a preference for homosexual relationships. In contrast, the Jews had a vast catalogue of sex crimes, all of them capital offences Schnitzler's Century: The Making of Middle-Class Culture 1815-1914 Schnitzler's Century: The Making of. Of course we are a good family and my uncle is a great man in the country, but where is the reputable farmer or God-fearing man of that kind that would dare to bring such a girl into his house to his mother and sisters download The Revolution Is!: The People's Pottage - Revisited epub. Religious symbols include the serpent, bull, labrys (a double-headed axe, for which the labyrinth is named), sun, and tree. Excavations have revealed frescoes, statues, and pottery download The Revolution Is!: The People's Pottage - Revisited pdf. To a substantial extent the story of civilization finds its best expression in the works of anthropologists who study not so much countries as man himself - man as he has striven forward from the dimness of cave life to the dawn of the Space Age , source: Boots and Saddles: Life in Dakota with General Custer Boots and Saddles: Life in Dakota with.

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The streets of major cities such as Mohenjo-daro or Harappa were laid out in a perfect grid pattern, comparable to that of present day New York. The houses were protected from noise, odors, and thieves. As seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, and the recently discovered Rakhigarhi, this urban plan included the world's first urban sanitation systems. Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells From Persepolis to the Punjab: Exploring the Past in in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan From Persepolis to the Punjab: Exploring. The banker naturally asked no questions, made no allusions to persons and events, and didn't even mention the great Legitimist Principle which presented to him now no interest whatever. But for the moment all the world was talking of the Carlist enterprise Sources of Indian Traditions: Modern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (Introduction to Asian Civilizations) (Volume 2) Sources of Indian Traditions: Modern. This was a radical departure from the traditional economies of the Stone Age. A traditional economy relies on habit, custom, or ritual and tends not to change over time. As you will read, in cities, many aspects of life were dramatically different than they had been before Aspects of Western read pdf Aspects of Western civilization:. The Maya developed several unique building innovations, including the corbel arch which was a false arch achieved by stepping each successive block, from opposite sides, closer to the center, and capped at the peak Storied Italy Storied Italy. These cities, and their civilization, vanish without trace from history until discovered in the 1920s. Life in the Indus valley cities seems to have been highly regulated. Streets are laid out on a rectangular grid pattern, and there is a sewage system with household drains leading into main sewers of baked brick , source: Civilization in the West: Since 1555 Civilization in the West: Since 1555. I make that longer than Ancient Egypt, from the First Dynasty to the death of Cleopatra. Contiuity as far back as 5000 years is more speculative, based on cultures in the same area. In answer to Peter Leykam and Leslie Young, The keyword here: Continuous. China is arguably one of the only two continuous civilisation exist on earth, the other one being Afghan; And that makes China the oldest continuous civilisation on earth ref.: Julius Caesar Ruler Of Rome: download online Julius Caesar Ruler Of Rome: The Life. Phoenician cities are labelled in yellow, Greek cities in red, and other cities in grey. c. 455: Skandagupta repels an Indo-Hephthalite attack on India. 476: Romulus Augustus, last Western Roman Emperor is forced to abdicate by Odoacer, a half Hunnish and half Scirian chieftain of the Germanic Heruli; Odoacer returns the imperial regalia to Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno in Constantinople in return for the title of dux of Italy; traditionally, the most frequently cited date for the end of the Roman Empire (although the Eastern Roman Empire, based in Constantinople, would still continue to exist until 1453) 529 The Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I ordered the prominent philosophical schools of antiquity throughout the Eastern Roman Empire (including the famous Academy in Athens, among others) to close down—allegedly, because Justinian frowned upon the pagan nature of these schools The transition period from Classical Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages is known as Late Antiquity Minnie's Pet Lamb read epub Minnie's Pet Lamb. These representations of human heads are carved from basalt boulders, and at present, at least seventeen of such objects have been found Sailing from Byzantium download here Sailing from Byzantium. Small objects of no value have the secret of sticking to a man in an astonishing way. I had nearly lost my liberty and even my life, I had lost my ship, a money-belt full of gold, I had lost my companions, had parted from my friend; my occupation, my only link with life, my touch with the sea, my cap and jacket were gone---but a small penknife and a latchkey had never parted company with me Civilization Past and Present download for free Civilization Past and Present 5e Volume.

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