By Samuel Willard Crompton

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59 6 S The Islamic Republic of Pakistan aladin was a twelfth-century Kurdish general who led Muslim armies against the Christian European crusaders. He recaptured the city of Jerusalem in 1187, and allowed the Christians there to be ransomed by their relatives in Europe. This humane approach to conquest differed greatly from the brutal massacre carried out by the crusaders when they captured the city in 1099. For this and other reasons, Saladin remains one of the great heroes of Islam. As renowned author and anthropologist Akbar S.

A civilization arose that was centered in about half a dozen cities sprinkled from the Punjab to the middle of the Sind. All these cities had populations of around 25,000 to 30,000, but the best preserved sites and the ones that have yielded the most to archaeologists are Mohenjo-daro in the Sind and Harappa in the Punjab. ” The Harappans, as the entire civilization was called, employed advanced building and irrigation techniques. 37 38 Pakistan Located in the Sind region of Pakistan, Mohenjo-daro is one of two (along with Harappa) Indus Valley civilization sites that have been preserved to the present day.

The Pakistanis display a great mixture of physical and cultural types, a mixture created by the numerous migrations and invasions that have occurred over the centuries. Roughly speaking, the major groups are Punjabis, Sindhis, Pashtuns, Mohajirs, Baluchis, Brahuis, Kalashas, Burushos, Wahis, Baltis, Gujars, and refugees from Afghanistan. It is important to remember that this melting pot of peoples has existed for hundreds, if not thousands of years, even though the state of Pakistan is only slightly more than 50 years old.

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